• The Asian Criminological Society exists to

    • to promote the study of criminology and criminal justice across Asia
    • to enhance co-operation in the fields of criminology and criminal justice by scholars and practitioners
    • to encourage communication between criminologists and criminal justice practitioners in Asia and the world through publications and conferences
    • to foster training and research in criminology and criminal justice in institutions of learning, and in criminal justice agencies
  • Chapter one: General Principle

    Article 1: The Name of the Organization

    The English name of the organization is “Asian Criminological Society”; the short form is “ACS”. The organization will be registered with the Government of the Macau SAR, China; its Chinese name is “亞洲犯罪學學會”. The organization is hereafter referred to “the Society.”


    Article 2: The Society domicile:

    The Asian Criminological Society (ACS) shall be located in Macau. Its address is: “AV. DE VENCESLAU DE MORAIS EDF. PAK TAK HANG LEI LAO BLOCK 2, 19 ANDAR A MACAU”

    Article 3: Nature of the Organization

    The Society is a non-profit academic organization.

    Article 4: Purposes and Objectives

    The purposes and objectives of the Society are:

    (1) to promote the development of criminology in Asia and to foster its link to the international criminology community;
    (2) to encourage and facilitate scholarly, scientific, and professional exchange and collaboration among members and individuals affiliated with the Society.

    Article 5: The Official Languages

    Besides the official languages prescribed by the Government of the Macau SAR (Chinese and Portuguese), English will be used as a working language. English shall prevail in case of discrepancy between different languages.


    Article 6: General Code of Ethics

    (1) Members of the Society are committed to enhancing the general well-being and status of the Society; they work carefully to avoid incompetent and unethical use of criminological knowledge or practice in Asia and worldwide; they respect all people’s rights, dignity and sense of worth; they are honest, open, and professional in dealings with all types of issues; they perform tasks for which they are qualified by expertise; they are dedicated to completing tasks; and they avoid any misconduct that may harm the reputation of the Society.
    (2) Violations of the provisions of this Code may result in sanctions associated with individual membership, including restrictions on or termination of the membership. The decision on any violation of the Code shall be made during the Executive Board meetings. Activities that are purely personal are not subject to this Code.

    Chapter two: Membership

    Article 6: Qualifications

    Members who accept the constitution and qualify in one or more of the following conditions can apply for membership of the ACS:

    (1) Those who actively engage in criminological research, teaching, and/or practice in the field of criminology; those who have received, or are receiving, undergraduate or graduate education in a relevant research field; and those whose vocations are closely related to criminology and are interested in conducting or using findings of criminological research.
    (2) Applications for membership shall be reviewed and approved by the Executive Board.

    Article 7: Exit

    Termination of membership shall be submitted to the Executive Board with one month's (30 days) notification and pay-up of any outstanding membership fees.

    Article 8: Rights

    A member shall enjoy the following rights:

    (1) the rights to elect and be elected, and the rights of recall;
    (2) to provide opinions and suggestions;
    (3) to attend the General Assembly and to propose bills and vote;
    (4) to sit on ordinary meetings of the leading organs;
    (5) to use the facilities and enjoy the benefits provided by the Society;

    to participate in the activities organized by the Society;

    (7) to enjoy other rights which are granted by law, constitution, and internal regulations;
    (8) members who are qualified to ACS affiliated organizations can apply to become members of such organizations.

    Article 9: Obligations

    A member shall have the following obligations:

    (1) to abide by the ACS constitution, regulations and resolutions;
    (2) to play an active role in promoting the development of the Society and increasing the collaboration between members;

    to contribute to the reputation of the Society;


    to pay annual membership fees;

    (5) to protect the interests of this Society;
    (6) to perform other obligations stipulated by law, constitution and internal regulations.

    Article 10: Disciplinary Procedures

    (1) Where a member has performed any act that seriously violates Article 9, his/her membership may be terminated by a two-thirds vote of the Executive Board.
    (2) The specific stipulations of disciplinary procedures shall be formulated by the internal regulations of this Society.

    Chapter three: Organizational Structure

    Section 1: Leading Organs


    Article 11: General Framework

    The Society has established, and will maintain, the following leading organs:

    (1) the General Assembly;
    (2) the Executive Board; and
    (3) the Supervisory Board.

    Section 2: The General Assembly


    Article 12: Nature

    The General Assembly shall be the highest authority of the Society.
    Article13: Members
    The General Assembly includes all the members of the Society and has a Presidium which includes a Chairperson and several vice-chairpersons. The number of members in the Presidium shall be an odd number, and these members shall be elected by the General Assembly, and they shall not be allowed to concurrently serve affiliated organizations of the Society.

    Article14: Terms

    The term of membership of the General Assembly Presidium shall be 3 years, and members of the Presidium may be re-elected.

    Article15: Meetings

    (1) The meeting of the General Assembly shall be held at least once a year. The date, time, place and agenda of the meeting shall be announced to the members at least 8 days in advance.
    (2) The resolution of the General Assembly may not come into force unless it is approved by at least half of the members present at the meeting. The resolutions are reached by anonymous ballots or other methods in accordance with regulations.
    (3) No member can represent other members to exercise the voting rights.

    Article 16: Rights

    1. The General Assembly shall exercise the following rights:

    (1) to amend the constitution;
    (2) to elect new members of the leading organ; the first members of the leading organ shall be elected by the founding-member meeting;
    (3) to examine and approve the work reports and yearly financial reports of the Executive Board;
    (4) to examine and approve the work reports and proposals of the Supervisory Board;
    (5) to perform other functions and exercise other powers stipulated by laws, constitution and other internal regulations.

    2. When the General Assembly is not in session, the Executive Board shall lead the Society’s daily work.


    Section 3: The Executive Board

    Article17: Nature

    The Executive Board is the administrative organ and deals with the daily work of the Society.


    Article 18: Members and Terms

    (1) The Executive Board includes a President, several Vice-Presidents, a Secretary-General, several directors, and a treasurer. The number of members shall be odd number. All the members of the Executive Board cannot serve in the affiliated organizations. The Executive Board can set up specific commissions to deal with special matters. The President and Vice-Presidents are elected by the General Assembly. The Secretary-General and treasurer are appointed by the President of the Executive Board. The treasurer shall be responsible for handling all monies, maintaining fiscal records for the society, providing periodic financial reports at times to be determined by the Executive Board, and submitting a yearly report during the Annual Meeting.
    (2) When needed the Executive Board can recruit administrative secretaries who shall be appointed by the President of the Board.
    (3) The term of members of the Executive Board shall be 3 years, and members of the Executive Board may be re-elected.
    (4) The organizational structure and the members’ rights and responsibilities of the Executive Board are determined by internal regulations.

    Article 19: Meetings and Resolution

    The Executive Board meeting shall be convened if:

    (1) the President decides to call a meeting;
    (2) two-thirds (2/3) or more directors of the Executive Board are determined to call a meeting.

    The resolution can be reached when at least two-thirds of the members of the Executive Board are present. And the revolution is valid only if it is approved by at least half of the members present at the meeting.


    Article 20: Rights

    1. The Executive Board is entitled to the following rights and responsibilities:

    (1) implementing the General Assembly’s resolutions;
    (2) the President of Executive Board represents the Society.
    (3) acquiring and managing the property of the Society;
    (4) making a preliminary draft of internal regulations and sending it to the General Assembly for record;
    (5) drafting the administrative regulations of the Society and sending it to the General Assembly for record;
    (6) coordinating the work of different departments of the Society and organizing relevant activities;
    (7) compiling the working plan and the annual budget plan;
    (8) compiling the working report and the annual financial report;
    (9) handling and monitoring the administrative and financial operations of the affiliated organizations;
    (10) ratifying the motions of financial revenue and expenditure of the leading organs, committees, and affiliated organizations;
    (11) organizing working committees and coordinating relevant work;
    (12) exercising other powers and responsibilities stipulated by law, by the Constitution of the Society, and by the internal regulations;

    2. The resolutions made by the Executive Board shall be issued by the President of the Executive Board.


    Section 4: The Supervisory Board

    Article 21: Nature
    The Supervisory Board is the monitoring organization.

    Article 22: Members and Terms

    (1) The Supervisory Board includes a chairman, a vice-chairman, and several supervisors. The number of members shall be an odd number. All the members in the Supervisory Board cannot serve in affiliated organizations of the Society.
    (2) The term of members of the supervisory board shall be 3 years, and members of the Supervisory Board may be re-elected.

    Article 23: Meetings

    The holding and operation of meetings of the Supervisory Board are to be in accordance with Article19.


    Article 24: Rights

    The Supervisory Board is subjected to the following rights and responsibilities:

    (1) Monitoring the Executive Board’s implementation of the resolutions made by the General Assembly;
    (2) handling suggestions and complaints made to the Society;
    (3) making proposals for the working reports and financial reports produced by the Executive Board;
    (4) exercising other powers and responsibilities stipulated by law, by the Constitution of the Society, and by the internal regulations.

    Section 5: Publication of the Society

    Article 25:

    the “Asian Journal of Criminology” (AJOC) is the official publication of the Society; the editor-in-chief of the journal automatically become one of the directors of the Executive Board.


    Section 6: Consultants

    Article 26: Consultants

    (1) In order to promote the development of the Society, the Executive Board may approve proposals to invite honorary presidents, consultants, and other honorary appointees.
    (2) Honorary presidents, consultants, and other honorary appointees are entitled to the rights stipulated by Article 8(2), (4), (5) and (6), and they should fulfill their obligations as described in Article 9 by providing advice to the work of the Society.
    Section7: Affiliated Organizations

    Article 27: Nature

    The Affiliated Organizations are attached to the Society. The work of the Affiliated Organizations is supervised by both the Executive Board and the Supervisory Board.


    Article 28: Organization

    The Affiliated Organizations are only managerial organizations; their powers and operations are stipulated by the internal regulations of the Society.


    Section 8: Adoption, Absence, Resignation and Removal

    Article 29: the Commencement and Termination of the Post

    Any member can take post since the beginning of the assumption of the office, and the post can be terminated at the time when the term of the office has expired, or through resignation and removal from the office.


    Article 30: Adoption

    Members of the leading organs and the Affiliated Organizations are elected; the specific methods are stipulated by the internal regulations of the Society.

    Article 31: Absence

    Members who cannot perform their duties temporarily shall inform their corresponding subordinates to perform the tasks on behalf of them.

    Article 32: Resignation

    Resignation of any member of the leading organs and specialized committees is only effective after being confirmed by the Executive Board. The work of the resigned member(s) shall be performed by his/her corresponding subordinate before the Executive Board proposes a new candidate for the position within 30 days of the resignation.

    Article 33: Removal
    (1) If the Chairman of the General Assembly, the President of the Executive Board, and the Chairman of the Supervisory Board have endangered the interests of the Society or have made serious mistakes, they can be deposed by a 3/4 approval of the General Assembly.
    (2) If other members of the leading organs and the affiliated organizations have seriously endangered the interests of the Society or have made serious mistakes, their positions can be removed by a 3/4 approval of the Executive Board.
    (3) Under such circumstances, new members shall be elected to fill the vacancies using the methods stipulated by Article 30.

    Chapter four: Funds of the Society

    Article 34: Financial Operation
    (1) A general fund for the Society derives from membership fees and donations to promote the development of the Society.
    (2) The funds must be used for businesses stipulated by the Constitution. They cannot be distributed among members of the Society for personal use.
    (3) The Executive Board is in charge of the financial administration and the treasurer is responsible for specific implementation. Checks may be issued through approval of any two persons among the President, the Secretary-General and the treasurer of the Executive Board.

    Article 35: Financial Year

    The financial year of the Society is from January 1st to December 31st.


    Chapter five: Dissolution

    Article 36: Dissolution of the Society

    (1) The Society may be dissolved through the declaration of the Court. Except that, the Executive Board can propose a dissolution motion which will then be determined by all members of the Society. The dissolution can only be effective after being approved by 3/4 of the overall membership.
    (2) According to the laws of Macau, the property of the Society after dissolution shall be used on other activities which are relevant to the purpose of the Society.

    Chapter six: Other

    Article 37: Amendments to the Constitution

    1. A proposal to amend the articles of the Constitution may be adopted in accordance with one of the following conditions:

    (1) the proposal for amendment shall be approved by at least 3/4 of all the members present at the General Assembly;
    (2) approval by at least 3/4 of members in the Presidium of the General Assembly;
    (3) approval by at least 3/4 of members in the Executive Board;
    (4) approval by all the members of the Supervisory Board;

    proposed by a majority (>1/2) of the overall members of the Society.

    2. Article 10 paragraph 2 applies when amendment to the Constitution is proposed by all the members of the Supervisory Board.

    3. After the approval to amend the Constitution, a Constitution Amendment Committee shall be formed and be responsible for any suggestions to amend the articles of the Constitution. The amendment of Articles of the Constitution is subjected to the approval of at least 3/4 of the members in the General Assembly.


    Article 38: Explanation of the Articles in the Constitution

    The Executive Board shall be responsible for the explanation of the articles in the Constitution and is in accordance with the laws of the Macau Special Administrative Region.


    Article 39: Internal Regulations

    Other matters that are not included in the Constitution shall be stipulated by the internal regulations which are enacted by the Executive Board.


    Article 40: Flag and Emblem

    The Society shall use the flag and emblem. The pattern of the flag will be determined by the Executive Board of the Society.


  • By Laws and Decisions of the Expended board meeting

    (attended by all ACS officials)

    June 27, 2014, Osaka


    By Laws (items 3,4,6) and decisions about the election of ACS 

    1. Next election should be held during the Hong Kong ACS Conference in 2015. Preparation for the election shall start six months before the conference.

    2. To ensure continuous growth of ACS and consistent with the ACS constitution, the newly elected President shall appoint a general secretary and other ACS secretaries. The president shall nominate a treasurer, who shall be approved by election. The president is personally responsible for the growth of ACS during his/her term.

    3. To ensure widened representation, the board decided that the president should be elected from a different country or region (in the case of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau as four different regions) every three years.

    4. To ensure smooth transition and stability of the new leadership group, the Past President should be nominated as the candidate for the position of Chairman of the General Assembly, and approved by election.

    5. The candidates for President should prepare statements explaining what will be accomplished in the new term. The statement should include the strengths, the resources and experience of the team they could bring to the challenge. It would include a plan for building the membership of the society and taking it to a new levelThe Statements of all candidates will be made publicly available to all members of ACS. A minimum requirement for the new President is to be personally responsible for setting up three new future conferences beyond the one that has already been set up by the previous presidents.

    6. ACS officials should be elected from current ACS members. And the new president should be elected from the ACS non-student life-member.

    7. If elected in Hong Kong in 2015, new leader would take office from January 1st 2016 for following three years.


    Other issues:

    8. Her Royal Highness Princess Bajrakitiyabha Mahidol of Thailand will be invited to be a patron of ACS.

    9. The board voted to award the title of “the Honorary Chairman of General Assembly of ACS” to John Braithwaite, to award the title of “the Honorary President of ACS” to Jianhong Liu, and to award the title of “the Honorary Chairman of Supervisory Board of ACS” to Charles Hou. The award ceremony will be held during 2015 ACS conference in Hong Kong and the honorary tiles will be effective since January, 2016.

    10. The board voted to award a title of Senior counsellor to Professor Ichiro Tanioka (President of Osaka University of Commerce); and to award the title of counsellor to Chris Eskridge (Executive Director of American Society of Criminology). President Liu issued certificates to the two outstanding contributors after the board meeting.

    11. The board voted to establish the ACS’s Outstanding Paper Award:

    a. A three-member Outstanding Paper Award committee will be set up after the board meeting.

    b. The article must be published in Asian Journal of Criminology(AJOC)

    c. The Springer will award 1,000 USD to the winner every year

    d. The outcomes should be decided by AJOC editorial board.

    e. Details about the award committee and other relevant business will be discussed after the Osaka conference

  • The ACS's Code of Ethics sets forth the principles and ethical standards that underlie sociologists' professional responsibilities and conduct. These principles and standards should be used as guidelines when examining everyday professional activities. They constitute normative statements for sociologists and provide guidance on issues that sociologists may encounter in their professional work.

  • Asian Criminology Contribution Award [In Process]

    Asian Young Criminologist Award [In Process] 

    Best Paper Award of Asian Journal of Criminoogy

      2016 Whither Criminology: Its Global Futures? (by Sandra Walklate)[Full Text]

      2015 Using General Strain Theory to Explain Crime in Asian Societies (by Robert Agnew)

    Sandra Walklate (right)